In understanding what I am trying to say you will have to discard the notion that it is something you have known all the time, which just happened to get well formulated by me. We are really up against one of the most difficult of human performances -- organizing thought about oneself and others, not on the basis of the unique individual me that is perhaps one's most valuable possession, but on the basis of one's common humanity. Sullivan, , p. All of us are afflicted by the fact that long before we can make brilliant intellectual formulations, we catch on to a good deal which is presented to us, first by the mothering one and then by other people who have to do with keeping us alive through the period of our utter dependence. Before anyone can remember, except under the most extraordinary circumstances, there appears in every human being a capacity to undergo a vary unpleasant experience. This experience is utilized by all cultures, by some a little and by some a great deal, in training the human animal to become a person, more or less according to the prescriptions of the particular culture. The unpleasant experience to which I am referring I call anxiety.
Harry Stack-Sullivan was trained in psychoanalysis in the United States, but soon drifted from the specific psychoanalytic beliefs while retaining much of the core concepts of Freud. Interestingly, Sullivan placed a lot of focus on both the social aspects of personality and cognitive representations. Freud believed that anxiety was an important aspect in his theory because it represented internal conflict between the id and the superego.
Journal of Adult Development. Members of the younger cohort increased in spirituality throughout the adult life cycle. In the second half of adulthood, women increased more rapidly in spirituality than men. Spiritual involvement in older age was predicted by religious involvement and personality characteristics in early adulthood and subsequent experiences of negative life events.